Investigation of Lethal toxicity effect of Tannic acid to freshwater fish Mystus Vitatus (Bloch)
AbstractAquatic pollution is a serious and growing problem, with the increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment leading to various deleterious effects on organisms. Aquatic ecosystems are dwindling due to unrestricted disposal of wastes and agricultural field chemicals. The present study was undertaken to investigate the lethal toxicity and stress levels of commercial formulations of tannic acid toward freshwater Mystus vittatus. For the assessment of 96 h LC50Â values of Tannic acid in the fresh water fish Mystus Vitatus (BLOCH), a range finding test was performed at the six selected concentrations (10, 50, 100, 150, 200 mg/L) and exposing the fishes at these concentrations for 24 h, 48, 72 and 96 h inÂ a static system. After finding out the number of live and dead fishes at these concentrations, a definitive test was performed by exposing the fishes again at six selected concentrations (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 mg/L) for 96 h time durations. Finally, the 96h LC50 value of tannic acid obtained in Mystus vittatus was 83 mg/L through Probit analysis using SPSS software. There were large variations in the safe levels estimated by different methods for the tannic acid. In addition to dose and dose-time dependent increase in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were observed in response to the test concentration.
Abdul Farah M, Ateeg B, Ali MN, Ahmad W (2004) Studies on lethal concentrations and toxicity stress of some xenobiotics on aquatic organisms. Chemosphere 55:257-265
APHA (American Public Health Association) (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edit. Washington, DC, USA
Bernays E A (1981) Plant tannins and herbivores: an appraisal. Ecol. Entomol. 6:353â€“360
Chandra S (2008) Toxic effects of Malathion on acetlcholinesterase activity of liver, brain and gills of freshwater catfish Heteropneutes fossilis. Environ Conserv. 9:45-52
Chang SI, and Fuller HL (1964) Effects of tannin contents of grain sorghum on their feeding value for growing chicks. Poultry Sci. 43:30â€“36
Feeny, PP (1976) Plant appearancy and chemical defense. In: Wallace, J.W. and R.L. Mansell, (eds.), Biochemical Interactions between Plants and Insects. pp. 1â€“40. Recent Adv. Phytochem. New York
Finar I L (1976) Organic Chemistry, Vol. 1. Longman, Singapore
Field JA, and Lettinga G (1987) The methanogenic toxicity and anaerobic degradability of a hydrolysable tannin. Wat. Res. 21:367â€“374
Finney DJ, (1971) Probit Analysis. Univ. Press, Cambridge, p. 333
Grant WD, (1976) Microbial degradation of condensed tannins. Sci. 193:1137â€“1139
Gupta PK, Khangarot BS, Durve VS (1981) The temperature dependence of the acute toxicity of copper to a fresh water pond snail, Viviparus bengalensis L. Hydrobiologia 83:461-464
Hussein, SY, El-Nasser MA, Ahmed SM (1996) Comparative studies on the effects of herbicide atrazine on freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus and Chrysichthys auratus at Assiut Egypt. Bull Environ Cont Toxicol, 57:503-510
Johnson D. (2001) Control of brown tannins in water. JVS LLC, KoiVet.com
Leibovitz HE, (1990) Abumenâ€“alginate Microcapsules for Delivering Food to Larval inland Silversides, Menidia beryllina. Doctoral dissertation. University of Rhode Island, USA.
Marchal ML, Marchalâ€“Delahaut, FM, Parmentie M, Lallement AM, Jeandet P (2002) Use of wheat gluten as clarifying agent Musts and Wines. American J. Enol. Vite.53:127â€“131
Markham KR, (1989) Plant phenolics. In: Harbone. J.B. (Ed.), Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Academic Press, London, pp. 197-235. Merck & Co., Rahway, (1976). The Merck Index 9th edition
Mohapatra BC, Rengarajan K (1995) A manual of Bioassays in the Laboratory and Their Techniques. CFMRI Spec. Pub. 64, CMFRI, Cochin, India, p. 75
Muhammad A, and David B (2007) Effect of tannic acid on feed intake, survival and growth of striped bass (morone saxatilis) larvae. Internat j Agri. Biol. 09:751â€“754
Nepka C, Asprodini E, Kouretas D (1999) Tannins, xenobiotic metabolism and cancer chemoprevention in experimental animals. Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 24:183-190
Pandey S, Kumar R, Sharma S, Nagpure NS, Srivastava SK (2005) Acute toxicity bioassays of mecuric chloride and malathion on air breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ecitoxicol. Environ. Saf. 61:114-120
Saxena P, Kumar P, Nagpure NS, Kumar D, Chaturvedi I and Mathur PK (2016) Evaluation of Lethal concentration of Ammonium Sulphate to freshwater fish Mystus Vitatus (BLOCH). Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. J. Biol. Sci. Med. 2 (3):1-5
Reish DL, Oshida, PS (1987) Short-term bioassay. In: Manuals of Methods in Aquatic Environment Research. Part 6. FAO Fish
Rhoades DF and RG Cates (1976). A general theory of plant herbivore chemistry. In: Wallace, J.W. and R.L. Mansell, (eds.), Biochemical Interaction between Plants and Insects. pp. 168â€“213. Recent adv. Phytochem. Plenum New York
Somanath B, (1991) Effect of acute sublethal concentration of tannic acid on the protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels in the tissues of the fish Labeo rohita. J. Environ. Biol. 12: 107â€“112
Sunderam RIM, Thompson GB, Chapman JC, Cheng DMH (1994) Acute and chronic toxicity of endosulfan to two Australian Cladocerans and their applicability in deriving water quality criteria. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 71:71-77
Swain T (1965) The Tannins. In: Bonner, J. and J. Varner (eds.), Plant Biochemistry. pp. 552â€“580. Academic Press, New York
Viswaranjan S, Beena S, and Palavesam A (1988) Effect of tannic acid on the protein, carbohydrate and lipid levels in the tissues of the fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Environ. Ecol. 6:289â€“292
Ward GS and Parish PR (1982) Toxicity tests. In: Manuals of Methods in Aquatic Environment Research, Part 6. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 185:1-23
Woynarovich E and Horvath L (1980) The artificial propagation of warmâ€“water finfishes. p. 118. A Manual for Extension
Copyright (c) 2017 Gupta et al.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).