Morphological and Molecular description of a new species, Trichodina cirhinii sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Tichodinidae), infesting native freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala

  • Naireen Fariya Parasitology Lab, Fish Health Management Division, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India 226002
  • Rehana Abidi Parasitology Lab, Fish Health Management Division, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India 226002
  • U K Chauhan School of Environmental Sciences, A.P.S. University Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India-486001


Trichodina is a genus of common protozoan parasites mostly known as ectoparasites (i.e. infecting skin, fin and gills) in wild and cultured fishes. The present study describes a new species of the genus Trichodina found on the gills of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala. Trichodina cirhinii were isolated and smears of the gills were air dried at room temperature and impregnated with silver nitrate. Morphometric data and comparative descriptions of these trichodinids are provided along with details of their prevalence of infestation. The new species was compared with other similar congeneric species reported from the same and other hosts. Furthermore, partial 18S rRNA gene sequences of the Trichodina cirhinii was acquired and used for the construction of phylogenetic trees. The present ï¬ndings through morphological and molecular study suggest that the genus Trichodina cirhinii is a new species.


Altschul SF, Madden TL, Schaffer AA, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Miller W, Lipman DJ (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3389–3402

Arthur JR, Margolis L (1984) Trichodina truttae Müller, 1937 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida), a common pathogenic ectoparasite of cultured juvenile salmonid fishes in British Columbia: redescription and examination by scanning electron microscopy. Can J Zool 62:1842–1848

Asmat GAS (2001) Trichodina porocephalusi n.sp. (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from an Indian flathead sleeper, Ophiocara porocephalusi (Valenciennes) (Eleotrididae). Acta protozool 49:297-301

Asmat GSM, Hafizuddin AKM, Habib MMA (2003) Trichodina sylhetensis sp. n. (Ciliophora:Trichodinidae) from the Mud Perch, Nandus nandus (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) (Nandidae) in Sylhet. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 6(20):1608-1611

Asmat GSM, Hoque B, Mohammad N (2006) A New Species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from the Long Whiskered Catfish, Mystus gulio (Hamilton-buchanan, 1822) (Siluriformes: Bagridae) in Chittagong. Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology 1(1):28-3

Basson L, Van As JG (1991) Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from a calanoid copepod and catfish from South Africa with notes on host specificity. Syst. Parasitol 18:147-158.

Dogiel VA (1940) On the classification of the genus Trichodina. (In Russian.) Trudy Leningradskogo Obs. Jestestvorspytatelei 68:8-31

Dogiel VA (1961) Ecology of the parasites of freshwater fish. In: Parasitology of Fishes (ed. by V.A. Dogiel, C.K. Petrushevski and Yn. I. Polyanski), pp. 1-48, Oliver and Boyd, London (English translation by Z. Kabata)

Duncan BL (1977) Urceolariid ciliates, including three new species, from cultured Philippine fishes. Trans Am Micros Soc 96 (1):76-81

Ehrenberg CG (1838) Die Infusionstheirchen als vollkommene Organismen. Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Verlag von Leopold Voss, Leipzig.

Fariya N, Abidi R, Chauhan UK (2016) Development and standardization of PCR technique for detection of ciliate parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from freshwater exotic carp Cyprinus carpio and Indian major carp Labeo rohita. J. Biol. Sci. Med 2(2):15-19

Felsenstein J (1985) Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution 39:783-791.

Haider G (1964) Monographie der Familic Urceolariidae (Ciliata, Peritricha, Mobilia) mit besonderer Beruck Sichtigung im Suddeutschen Raum Vorkommenen Arten. Parusit. Schr. Reiche. 17:1-249

Hassan MAH (1999) Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Tilapia in Eastern Saudi Arabia. JKAU: Eng. Sci. 11(1):3-17

Hoffman GL (1998) Parasites of North American freshwater fishes, 2nd edn. Cornell Univ. Press, London: 539pp.

Kazubski SL, Migala K (1968). Urceolariidae from breeding carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Zabieniec and remarks on the seasonal variability of trichodinids. Acta Protozool 6:137-160

Klein BM (1958) The dry silver method and its proper use. J. Protozool 5:99-103

Lom J (1958) A contribution to the systematics and morphology of endopasitic trichodinids from amphibians of uniform speciï¬c characteristics. J Protozool 5:251–263

Lom J (1960) Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann and Partsch, 1955 from crucian carp, and T. domerguei f. latispina Dogiel, 1940 from Diaptomus. Vest. Csl. Zool. Spol. 24:246-257

Lom J (1961) Ectoparasitic trichodiniids from fresh water fish in Czechoslovakia. Acta. Soc. Sool. Bohemoslov. 25:215-228

Lom J (1962) Trichodinid ciliates from fishes of the Rumanian Black Sea Coast. Parasitol 52:49-61

Lom J (1970) Observations on trichodinid ciliates from freshwater fishes. Archiv fu¨r Protistenkunde 112:153–177

Lom J, Hoffman GL (1964) Geographic distribution of some species of trichodinids (Ciliata: Peritricha) parasitic on fishes. J Protozool 50:30-35

Lom J, Laird M (1969) Parasitic protozoa from marine and euryhaline fish of Newfoundland and New Brunswick. I. Peritritrichous ciliates. Can J Zool 47:1367-1380

Martorelli SR, Marcotegui PS, Alda P (2008) Trichodina marplatensis sp.n. [Ciliophora: Trichodinidae] from Combjelly, Mnemiopsis mccradyi [Mayer, 1900] in Argentine Sea. Acta Protozoologica 47(3):257-261

Moksness E, Gjoseter J, Reinert A, Fjallstein IS (1989) Start-feeding and on-growing of wolffish (Anarhichas lupus) in the laboratory. Aquaculture 77:221-228

Nei M, Kumar S (2000) Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York.

Raabe H (1958) On some species of Trichodina (Ciliata- Peitricha) of gills of Adriatic fishes. Acta Parasit Polton. 6:355-362

Shtein GA (1979) New data on parasitic ciliates (Peritricha, Urceolariidae) of fishes of the basins of Pacific Ocean. Acta Protozoologica 18:531–552. (In Russian).

Shwani AAA, Shamall MAA, Asmat G (2010) Two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from Silurus triostigus in Iraq. Euro J Scientific Research 40(4):598-604

Tamura K, Nei M, Kumar S (2004) Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101:11030-11035

Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 30:2725-2729

Tang F, Zhang Y, Zhao Y (2017) Morphological and Molecular Identiï¬cation of the New Species, Trichodina pseudoheterodentata sp. n. (Ciliophora, Mobilida, Trichodinidae) from the Channel Catï¬sh, Ictalurus punctatus, in Chongqing China. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 64:45–55.

Tang FH, Zhao YJ, Warren A (2012) Phylogenetic Analyses of Trichodinids (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora) Inferred from 18S rRNA Gene Sequence Data. Current Microbiology 66:306–313

Tang FH, Zhao YJ, Warren A (2013) Phylogenetic analyses of trichodinids (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora) inferred from 18S rRNA gene sequence data. Current Microbiology 66:306-313

Urawa S (1992) Trichodina truttae Mueller, 1937 (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) on juvenile chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta): Pathogenicity and Host-Parasite Interactions. Gyobyo Kenkyu. 27:29-37

Van As JG, Basson L (1989) A. Further contribution to the taxonomy of the Trichodinidae (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) and a review of the taxonomic status of some fish ectoparasitic trichodinids. Syst. Parasitol. 14:157-179

Wellborn TLJr (1967) Trichodina (Ciliata: Urceolariidae) of freshwater fishes of the Southern United States. J. Protozool. 14: 399-412

Wierzbicka J (1998) Developmental stages of protozoans Trichodina kupermani Arthur et Lom, 1984 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) parasites of blue bream, Abramis ballerus (L.). Acta Ichthyol Piscat. 28:43-47

Xu K, Song W, Warren A (2002) Taxonomy of trichodinids from the gills of marine fishes in coastal regions of the Yellow Sea, with descriptions of two new species of Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia). Systematic Parasitology 51:107–120

Zhukov EV (1964) On the parasite fauna of fishes of the Chukotsk Peninsula and the adjoining seas. III. The parasitic protozoa of marine and freshwater fishes. Parazitol. Sb. 22:224-253

How to Cite
Fariya, N., Abidi, R. and Chauhan, U. 2017. Morphological and Molecular description of a new species, Trichodina cirhinii sp. nov. (Ciliophora: Tichodinidae), infesting native freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. 3, 1 (Mar. 2017), 10-17.
Research Articles