Probiotics: Manipulator of Periodontal Diseases?
Among the other periodontal diseases, periodontitis is one of the most commonly found chronic inflammatory diseases. Probiotics have become of interest to researchers in recent times. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised an alarming question regarding the treatment of periodontal diseases. A plethora of bacterial pathogens have been associated with the periodontal disease and to overcome the consequences of periodontal diseases, probiotic technology is vastly used. Probiotic technology represents a step forward towards the maintenance of oral health by the use of natural beneficial bacteria found in healthy mouths that provide a natural defense against harmful bacteria. The present review emphases to introduce the concepts of probiotics in periodontics diseases.
Agarwal E, Bajaj P, Guruprasad CN, Naik S, Pradeep AR (2011) Probiotics: A Novel Step Towards Oral Health. Aosr 1(2):108-115
Awano S, Gohara K, Kurihara E, Ansai T, Takehara T (2002) The relationship between the presence of periodontopathogenic bacteria in saliva and halitosis. Int Dent J 52: 212-216
Backhed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL, Peterson DA, Gordon JI (2005) Host-Bacterial Mutualism in the Human Intestine. Science 307:1915â€“1920
Bonifait L, Chandad F, Grenier D (2009) Probiotics for Oral Health: Myth or Reality? JCDA 75(8): 585-590
Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML (2006) Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks? The American J Clinical Nut 83(6): 1256-1264
Brown K, DeCoffe D, Molcan E, Gibson DL (2012) Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Nutrients 4(8):1095-1119
Burton JP, Chilcott CN, Moore CJ, Speiser G, Tagg JR (2006) A preliminary study of the effect of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 on oral malodour parameters. J Appl Microbiol 100:754-764
Caglar E, Cildir SK, Ergeneli S, Sandalli N, Twetman S (2006) Salivary Mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli Levels after Ingestion of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus Reuteri ATCC 55730 by Straws or Tablets. Acta Odontol Scand 64: 314â€“318
Chatterjee A, Bhattacharya H, Kandwal A (2011) Probiotics in periodontal health and disease. J Indian Society Periodont 15(1): 23-28
Erejuwa OO, Sulaiman SA, Ab Wahab MS (2014) Modulation of Gut Microbiota in the Management of Metabolic Disorders: The Prospects and Challenges. Int J Mol Sci 15(3): 4158-4188
FAO/WHO (2001) Expert consultation on evaluation of health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live lactic acid bacteria (October 2001).
Fuller R (1989) Probiotics in Man and Animals. J Appl Bacteriol 66:365â€“378
Gerritsen J, Smidt H, Rijkers GT, de Vos WM (2011) Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics. Genes & Nutrition 6(3): 209-240
Gupta V, Gupta B (2010) Probiotics and Periodontal Disease: A Current Update. J Oral Health Comm Dent 4(Spl): 35-37
Houle MA, Grenier D (2003) Maladies parodontales: connaissances actuelles. Current concepts in periodontal diseases. MÃ©decine et maladies infectieuses 33(7):331-340
How KY, Song KP, Chan KG (2016) Porphyromonas gingivalis: An Overview of Periodontopathic Pathogen below the Gum Line. Frontiers Microbiol 7:53
Ishibashi N, Yamazaki S (2001) Probiotics and safety. The American J Clinical Nut 73(2): 465-470
Kang MS, Chung J, Kim SM, Yang KH, Oh JS (2006) Effect of Weissella Cibaria Isolates on the Formation of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm. Caries Res 40:418â€“425
Kang MS, Kim BG, Chung J, Lee HC, Oh JS (2006) Inhibitory Effect of Weissella cibaria Isolates on the Production of Volatile Sulphur Compounds. J Clin Periodontol 33:226â€“232
Kekkonen RA, Lummela N, Karjalainen H, Latvala S, Tynkkynen S, Jarvenpaa S, Kautiainen H, Julkunen I, Vapaatalo H, Korpela R (2008) Probiotic intervention has strain-specific anti-inflammatory effects in healthy adults. World J Gastroenterol 14(13): 2029-2036
KÃµll-Klais P, MÃ¤ndar R, Leibur E, Marcotte H, HammarstrÃ¶m L, Mikelsaar M (2005) Oral Lactobacilli in Chronic Periodontitis and Periodontal Health: Species Composition and Antimicrobial Activity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 20 (6): 354-361
Krasse P, Carlsson B, Dahl C, Paulsson A, Nilsson A, Sinkiewicz G (2006) Decreased Gum Bleeding And Reduced Gingivitis By The Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri. Swed Dent J 30:55â€“60
Lilly DM, Stillwell RH (1965) Probiotics: Growth-Promoting Factors Produced By Microorganisms. Science 147:747â€“748
Luckey D, Gomez A, Murray J, White B, Taneja V (2013) Bugs & us: The role of the gut in autoimmunity. The Indian J Med Res 138(5): 732-743
Mayanagi G, Kimura M, Nakaya S, Hirata H, Sakamoto M, Benno Y, Shimauchi H (2009) Probiotic Effects of Orally Administered Lactobacillus Salivarius WB21-Containing Tablets on Periodontopathic Bacteria: A Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. J Clin Periodontol 36:506â€“513
Morita M, Wang HL (2001) Association between oral malodour and adult periodontitis: a review. J Clin Periodontol 2 8: 813-819
Paineau D, Carcano D, Leyer G, Darquy S, Alyanakian MA, Simoneau G, Bergmann JF, Brassart D, Bornet F, Ouwehand AC (2008) Effects of seven potential probiotic strains on specific immune responses in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 53(1):107-113
Pochard P, Gosset P, Grangette C et al. (2002) Lactic Acid Bacteria Inhibit TH2 Cytokine Production By Mononuclear Cells From Allergic Patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110:617â€“623
Porter SR, Scully C (2006) â€œOral Malodour (halitosis).â€ BMJ : British Medical Journal 333. 7569: 632â€“635
Riccia DN, Bizzini F, Perilli MG, Polimeni A, Trinchieri V, Amicosante G, Cifone MG (2007) Anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus brevis (CD2) on periodontal disease. Oral Dis 13(4): 376-385
Samuelson DR, Welsh DA, Shellito JE (2015) Regulation of lung immunity and host defense by the intestinal microbiota. Frontiers in Microbiology 6:1085
Stamatova I, Meurman JH (2009) Probiotics and Periodontal Disease. Periodontology 2000 51: 141â€“151
Teughels W, Essche MV, Sliepen I, Quirynen M (2008) Probiotics and Oral Healthcare. Periodontology 2000 48:111â€“147
Torrungruang K, Jitpakdeebordin S, Charatkulangkun O, Gleebbua Y (2015) Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Treponema denticola / Prevotella intermedia Co-Infection Are Associated with Severe Periodontitis in a Thai Population. Glogauer M, ed. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136646. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136646.
Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P (1998) Vancomycin Resistance Factor Of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG In Relation To Enterococcal Vancomycin Resistance (Van) Genes. Int J Food Microbiol 41:195â€“204
Vivekananda, MR, Vandana, KL, Bhat KG (2010) Effect of the probiotic Lactobacilli reuteri (Prodentis) in the management of periodontal disease: a preliminary randomized clinical trial. J Oral Microbiology 2:10.3402/jom.v2i0.5344. doi:10.3402/jom.v2i0.5344
Zhu Y, Dashper SG, Chen YY, Crawford S, Slakeski N, Reynolds EC (2013) Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola Synergistic Polymicrobial Biofilm Development. Brissette CA, ed. PLoS ONE 8(8):e71727. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071727
Copyright (c) 2016 Gupta and Prabha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).