Melatonin: An integrative approach to regulate immune homeostasis against oxidative stress

  • Shraddha Rastogi Pineal Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
  • Chandana Haldar Pineal Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India


Several factors such as environment, pathogens, lifestyle, stress, radiation etc. are involved in increasing oxidative overload by affecting the antioxidant status or free oxygen radical generation. The elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes redox imbalance that exacerbates free radicals generation causing oxidative stress which impairs the antioxidant defense pathways resulting into molecular damage to vital structures and functions thereby causing cell death. Oxidative stress increases susceptibility to illness and disease because as a part of intrinsic defense mechanism, brain send signals to the endocrine system. Oxidative stress is also implicated in various life-threatening diseases wherein, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants.  To maintain the redox balance, a continual supply of antioxidants is necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits. In recent years, the pharmaceutical market has been flooded with various antioxidant supplements that claim to reduce oxidative overload and increase longevity, however they have a few drawbacks such as auto-oxidation and impermeability inside the cell. Hence, a strong integrative approach is required to counteract oxidative stress without affecting normal physiology. Melatonin, a lipophilic molecule synthesized by the pineal gland is a potent intrinsic non-enzymatic antioxidant as well as an immunomodulator. Melatonin is a part of intrinsic system that has the ability to regulate antioxidative, immunologic and other physiological processes simultaneously. Therefore, in this review we have highlighted properties of melatonin and introduced it as a strong candidate against redox imbalance induced clinical pathologies thereby increasing longevity and survival.


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How to Cite
Rastogi, S. and Haldar, C. 2018. Melatonin: An integrative approach to regulate immune homeostasis against oxidative stress. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. 4, 2 (Jun. 2018).
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