An analytical study on behavioral responses of different fishes, related to excretory ammonia concentration

Sharad C. Srivastava, Pankaj Verma, Dinesh Kumar, Abubakar Ansari, A. K. Singh


The present experiment was conducted to analyze the compatibility in tolerance of ammonia secretion in various fishes; C. gariepinus, C. batrachus, H. fossilis, C. punctatus and C. carpio using 160-liter capacity culture tank. Two different systems; mono culture and poly culture were arranged to compare their behavioral activities including opercular movement (OM), S-shaped movement (SM), surfacing activity (SA), jumping activity (JA), bottom dwelling activity (BDA), schooling behavior (SB), erraching behavior (EB), equilibrium status (Eq B) and growth performance of fishes for 158 days. Certain daily changes were observed during the experiment and after 136 days (concentration of ammonia, 1.6mg/L) all species C. carpio, C. punctatus, C. batrachus, H. fossilis died subsequently. After 158 days post exposure of 1.97mg/L ammonia to the fishes, all the studied fish were found dead in poly culture experimentation system except Clarias garipenus. The study also indicates that the behavioral responses of the selected species are directly related to the excretory ammonia concentration.

Full Text:



Abo-Esa J F K (2008) Study on Some Ectoparasitic Diseases of Catfish, Clarias gariepinus with their Control by Ginger, Zingiber officiale Mediterranean. Aquacult. J. 1. 1-10

Abowei, JFN (2010) The Condition Factor, Length-Weight Relationship and Abundance of Elops seneganensis (Regan, 1909) from Nkoro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria, Adv.Int. J. Food.Sci. Tech 2, 16-21

Adams, M J (2000) Pond permanence and the effects of exotic vertebrates on anurans. Ecol. Appl. 10, 559-568

Adams, M J (1999) Correlated factors in amphibian decline: exotic species and habitat change in western Washington. J. Wildl. Manage. 63,1162-1171

Alongi D M, Chong VC, Dixon P, Sasekumar A, Tirendi F (2003) The influence of fish cage aquaculture on pelagic carbon flow and water chemistry in tidally dominated mangrove estuaries of peninsular Malaysia. Mar. Environ. Res. 55, 313–333

APHA (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, twenty first ed. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation, Washington, USA

Aquafarmer (2004) The farming of Arctic charr. Technical Institute of Iceland, the Holar University College and The Aquaculture Development Centre of Ireland. November 2007 – January 2008;

Chand BK, Goswami A, Biswas PK, Biswas P, Patra BC (2006) Effect of stocking levels of ducks on production of Indian Major Carps in village ponds under duck-fish integrated system in West Bengal state of India. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Vol.18, Article 6. Retrieved August 4, 2009, from

Dukes JS, Mooney HA (2004) Disruption of ecosystem processes in western North America by invasive species. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat.77, 411–437

Eiswerth ME, Englin J, Fadali E, Shaw WD (2000) The Value of Water Levels in Water-Based Recreation: A Pooled Revealed Preference/Contingent Behavior Approach. Water Resources Research. 36, 1079–1086

ELI (Environmental Law Institute) (2008)

Findlay CS, Bert DG, Zheng L (2000). Effect of introduced piscivores on native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 57, 570–580

Graham J B (1997) Air –breathing fishes. Academic Press. San Diego. pp.299

Hampson BL (1976) Ammonia concentration in relation to ammonia toxicity during a rainbow trout rearing experiment in a closed freshwater-seawater system. Aquaculture. 9, 61-70

Ip, Y K, Chew S F, Randall D J (2004) Five tropical air-breathing fishes, six different strategies to defend against ammonia toxicity on land. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 77,768 -782

Kolar CS, Lodge M (2002) Ecological predictions and risk assessments for alien fishes in North America. Science. 298,1233–1236

Little EE, Finger SE (1990) Swimming behaviour as an indicator of sublethal toxicity in fish. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 13- 19

Losordo T M, Masser M P, Rakocy J E (1999) Recirculating aquaculture tank production systems: a review of component options. SRAC, P.453

Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Issues in Ecology. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol. Appl.10, 689-710

Novacek M, Cleland E E (2001) The current biodiversity extinction event: scenarios for mitigation and recovery. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA. 98, 5466–5470. doi:10.1073/pnas.091093698

Parkos JJ, III, Santucci VJ, Jr Wahl DH (2003) Effects of adult common carp (Cyprinuscarpio) on multiple trophic levels in shallow mesocosms. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, 60, 182–192

Pillay TVR, Kutty MN (2005) Aquaculture, Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK. pp 630

Ribeiro F, Crain PK, Moyle PB (2004) Variation in condition factor and growth in young of year fishes in floodplain and riverine habiats of the Cosumnes River, California. Hydrobiologia 527, 77-84.

Ricker W E (1979). Growth rates and models. In: fish Physiology (Hoar WS, Rondal PJ, and Brett JR Eds.) New York pp. 677-743

Sanni S, Forsberg OI (1996) Modelling pH and carbon dioxide in single-pass seawater aquaculture systems. Aquacult. Eng., 15, 91–110

Sax DF, Gaines SD (2003) Species diversity: From global decreases to local increases. Trends Ecol, Evol, 18,561–566

Simon KS, Townsend CR (2003) Impacts of freshwater invaders at different levels of ecological organization, with emphasis on salmonids and ecosystem consequences. Freshwater. Biol. 48, 982–994

Singh AK, Ansari A, Srivastava SC, Srivastava VK (2015) An Appraisal of introduced African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Bruchell 1822) in India: Invasion and risks. Annu. Res. Rev. Biol. 6, 41-58

Strayer D L (2010) Alien species in fresh waters: ecological effects, interactions with other stressors, and prospects for the future. Freshwater. Biol. 55, 152–174

Timmons MB, Ebeling JM, Wheaton FW, Summerfelt ST, Vinci BJ (2002. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems, 2nd Edition. Cayuga Aqua Ventures, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA. pp.800

Tinner W, Lotter AF (2001) Central Europe vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka. Geology. 29, 551–554

Twarowska JG, Westerman PW, Losordo TM (1997) Water treatment and waste characterization evaluation of an intensive recirculating fish production system. Aquacult. Eng., 16, 133–147

USEPA (2009) Hazardous Water Report.

Verli O, Pottinger T G, Carrick T R, verli E O, Winberg S (2002) Differences in behaviour between rainbow trout selected for high- and low-stress responsiveness. J. Exp. Biol, 205. 391-395


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Srivastava et al.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Online ISSN : 2455-5266

© Copyrights 2016. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. All Rights Reserved.