An insight on environmental stressor induced Reactive Oxygen Species and its effects on DNA integrity

Anil Singh

Abstract


Damage to our genetic material is an ongoing threat to both our ability to faithfully transmit genetic information to our offspring as well as our own survival. A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism’s endogenous processes such as replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Exogenous ROS can be produced from pollutants, tobacco, smoke, drugs, xenobiotics, or radiation. In addition to energy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the potential to cause cellular damage are produced. ROS can damage DNA, RNA, and proteins, which, in theory, contributes to the physiology of ageing. In this review we describe the type of environmental stressor and different kind of Reactive Oxygen Species which causes DNA damage. We critically analysis the relationship between environmental stressors and DNA damage. In addition, we suggest the use of DNA damage assisted biomarkers for identification of different types of stresses i.e., radiation, oxidative, or replication stress, based biochemical approaches and meta-analysis of literature data.


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Copyright (c) 2016 Anil Singh

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Online ISSN : 2455-5266

© Copyrights 2016. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. All Rights Reserved.