Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine <p>The “<strong><em>Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine</em></strong>” (JBSM) is an international open access journal in English published quarterly. The aim of JBSM is to publish rapid and peer reviewed original research articles, scientific reports, review and mini-reviews in the developing and interdisciplinary field of biological, environmental and medical sciences. We welcome original research papers covering all aspects of modern biology for publication in our journal. Aspiring young scientists, medical professionals and researchers especially in the field of biology, biomedicine, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, forestry, biotechnology etc., are wholeheartedly encouraged to submit their valuable contributions.</p> <p>Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine welcomes original, unpublished research papers which includes critical analysis of any aspect of all subjects from the faculty members, graduate students, independent researchers, and writers from all over the world. The scope of the journal is wide open to the International arena.</p> Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine en-US Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine 2455-5266 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> Image segmentation and association analysis of Endothelin-1 and CD-31 expression in tobacco smokers' placenta using automated Nearest Neighbour and Genetic Algorithm <p>Expression of the protein markers, Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and CD-31 in human placenta is reported to be associated with the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke. We have established through immunohistochemical evaluation that the expression level of ET-1 protein is consistently very high among the women who directly smoke tobacco (active smokers) compared to the other group of women who inhale environmental tobacco smoke or ETS (passive smokers) and non-smokers. To determine the relative expression of both the proteins in the immunohistochemistry images from both the group of women, we have utilized combination of genetic algorithm and nearest neighbor (GA-NN model). Based on the extracted features from the image the GA-NN model efficiently detected the differential expression of the marker proteins and categorized them as active smokers or passive smokers. The computational model was found to be very robust (predictive accuracy was 90.76 ± 2.50 %, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.7125,&nbsp;<em>Q<sub>pred </sub></em>= 82.85 ± 4.246%, sensitivity = 89.24 ± 2.45% and specificity = 83.43 ± 2.38%. The rate/intensity of expression for ET-1 and CD-31 was more for active smokers as compared to passive smokers. From these results, it could be concluded that computer aided diagnosis based on the immunohistochemical (IHC) images of tissue biopsies from different diseases can support the clinicians in framing their opinion about the comprehensive diagnosis of patient's ailment and its cure, especially in country like ours which lacks experienced histopathologists.</p> Banajit Bastia Kapil Kumar Shashi Nandar Kumar Pradeep Kumar Naik Nihar Ranjan Behera Arun Kumar Jain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 1 9 Prevalence of infant mortality among children of the Todapur-Dasghara village, Delhi, India <p>Mortality means finally death and the condition of being susceptible to death. It is generally used to indicate the end of life or death. Infant mortality is defined as the death of children under the age of one year. Infant mortality rate is the death of children under the age of one year per 1000 live births. The death of children due to mortality may be used as a symbol of public health condition of those countries. As a result of these, children mortality effect also on the entire population disturbance. There are many factors that affect the child infant mortality like race and ethnicity, sanitation, culture, life style, education etc. The present study aimed to study the demographic profile of Todapur and Dasghara women and children in Delhi. The data were collected from Jat and Yadav dominated villages in different months of the year 2013-2014 from 900 households. The main focus of the interview was the ever-married women in the reproductive age group of 15 to 55 years and their children. The data was collected through interviews and observations. Data on reproductive history, vital events, family planning etc. was collected. The results revealed that 38.6% of people are original inhabitants of Todapur, 17.4% from Dasghara and the rest from Bihar state. The age at marriage is low that is 15 years. More than 5.3% of the women in the age group of 15 to 19 years have ever had a child. This is the cause of reproductive wastage. The crude death rate of the people of Todapur-Dasghara is 7.26 per 1000. The infant mortality rate is 26.6 per 1000 live births. This study looks into the reasons for infant mortality, which would help to control or further reduce infant mortality in future.</p> Shobha Kumari P R Mondal Sonali Walia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 10 15 Perspectives of medicinal plants and their role in the life of rural community in Uttarakhand, India <p>Rural communities of Uttarakhand possess traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and remedies that needs to be conserved. A green consumerism is getting popular globally which is bringing up greater scopes and opportunities of the medicinal plant cultivation to the farmers. In this survey, it was found that in spite of various policies, researches and public participation programs there were no significant achievements at the ground level. Rural communities are still at large unaware and neutral towards medicinal plant-based activities. Capacity building of the local rural comminutes can be very effective and fruitful in many ways. Cultivation of the medicinal plants by farmers using scientific approach and proper market management can be of multilevel benefits such as enhanced income of farmers and women empowerment while checking the biodiversity loss. Moreover, traditional health care system along with other traditional values can also be conserved in the hills while curbing the migration of new generation.</p> Rajdeep Singh Niteesh Kumar Pramod Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 16 26 Endocrine and paracrine interaction of growth factors during early pregnancy: A comparative perceptiveness in mammals <p>Infertility is one of the devastating problems worldwide in recent decades which adversely affect the socio-economic status of a person. Loss of early pregnancy due to failure in embryo implantation is considered as one of the major cause of infertility in females and most important limiting factor for achieving a successful outcome using the assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Growth factors are multifunctional signaling molecules secreted by endometrium or blastocyst having a critical role in making uterus receptive for successful progression of early pregnancy. Although various aspects of molecular signaling of growth factors during early pregnancy in different mammals has been studied, a comprehensive understanding of molecular cascade among growth factors and their interaction with other implantation specific molecules is still missing. This review focuses on the role of different growth factors and their regulation during the window of implantation in different mammals. These studies expand our knowledge regarding the molecular signaling of different growth factors in the uterus during the process of early pregnancy. Understanding molecular cascade of growth factors may provide a new insight to improve the outcome of natural pregnancy and enhances the success rate of <em>in vitro</em> fertilization.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Randhir Kumar Chandana Haldar Pranab Lal Pakrasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 27 40 Pharmacognostical and pharmacological profiling of Barleria prionitis Linn. <p>Global demand for herbal medicines is increasing rapidly because of their higher safety margin and low cost.<em> Barleria prionitis</em> Linn. (Family <em>Acanthaceae</em>) is a well-known perennial, Ayurvedic herb distributed in tropical Asia, Africa. Several studies reveal that the whole plant or its specific parts (leaf, stem, root, bark, and flower) has been utilized for the treatment of a toothache, catarrhal affections, whooping cough, inflammations, glandular swellings, urinary infection, jaundice, fever, gastrointestinal disorders and as diuretic and tonic. Many phytochemical constituents like balarenone, pipataline, barlerinoside, verbascoside, methyl ester, prionisides, acetylbarlerin, lupulinoside, shanzhiside, scutellarein have been isolated from the different parts of this plant, it is still underutilized as an established medicinal plant because its huge potentials are still uncovered. However, significant presence of several new secondary metabolites strengthen the demand for further research based on its phytotherapeutical importance. Besides its numerous folk use, the present review also illustrates its phytochemical profile as well as pharmacological augmentation which will be helpful for future researchers.</p> Shweta Shukla Shivshankar M Gunjegaokar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 41 50 Plant Heat Shock Protein Families: Essential Machinery for Development and Defense <p>Being sessile in nature, plants experience stress due to constantly changing environmental conditions such as drought, salt stress, exposure to chemicals along with highly variable temperature (heat and cold) stress in the era of global warming. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins, which help plants to cope the adverse conditions caused by these stresses. HSPs help to maintain the cellular homeostasis by maintaining the three-dimensional structure of cellular proteins. Apart from homeostasis maintenance during various stress conditions, these molecular chaperons are also involved in maintaining the normal cellular processes such as protein folding/unfolding, multi-protein complex assembly, protein sorting and transport to correct locations. Presence of high to low molecular weight HSP classes in plant genome points towards a precisely evolved adaptation mechanism. These classes include HSP100, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, and sHSPs. Here, we have discussed the various classes of HSP proteins with emphasis on their mechanism of action, their evolution across the plant kingdom along with their role in combating the stress.</p> Anshulika Sable Sudhir K Agarwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 1 51 64