Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine <p>The “<strong><em>Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine</em></strong>” (JBSM) is an international open access journal in English published quarterly. The aim of JBSM is to publish rapid and peer reviewed original research articles, scientific reports, review and mini-reviews in the developing and interdisciplinary field of biological, environmental and medical sciences. We welcome original research papers covering all aspects of modern biology for publication in our journal. Aspiring young scientists, medical professionals and researchers especially in the field of biology, biomedicine, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, forestry, biotechnology etc., are wholeheartedly encouraged to submit their valuable contributions.</p> <p>Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine welcomes original, unpublished research papers which includes critical analysis of any aspect of all subjects from the faculty members, graduate students, independent researchers, and writers from all over the world. The scope of the journal is wide open to the International arena.</p> Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine en-US Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine 2455-5266 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> In-vitro probiotic properties of four Lactobacillus plantarum strains for African catfish aquaculture <p><em>In vitro</em> evaluation of microorganisms intended for use as probiotics is essential to understand their potential beneficial properties before being subjected to time-consuming and costly <em>in vivo</em> experiments. This study therefore, examined some <em>in vitro</em> probiotic effects of four strains of <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>. Evaluated <em>in-vitro</em> effects were considered to be important for African catfish farming, including haemolysis, antibacterial and enzymatic (amylase and endoglucanate) activities. Examined strains were initially isolated from fermented maize, sorghum, soybeans and cassava with accession numbers LC333558, LC333559, LC333560 and LC333561 respectively. The results showed that except for low acid tolerance by LC333561 (strain from fermented cassava), the four strains of <em>L. plantarum</em> examined in this study were not found to be pathogenic, but possessed antibacterial and enzymatic activities with slight variations among the strains.</p> Daniel Olusegun Diyaolu Fatuyi Olanipekun Ekundayo Olabode Thomas Adebayo Emmanuel Adedayo Fasakin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 Correlation of serum biochemical characteristics with its gallstone compositions <p>Gallstone disease is usually an asymptomatic disease affecting millions of people all over the world. It is also considered as the most important risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer. Gallstone is found in populations in most parts of the world, while its existence is prevalent in certain regions like India, Chile, Japan and USA. Analysis of gallstone and biochemical characteristics of patient may provide the important insights to pathophysiology of gallstone disease. For this purpose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied for the compositional analysis of gallstone. Later, the observational study was carried out by comparing the composition of gallstone along with specific biochemical characters of gallstone patients. On the basis of present study, it was revealed that the gallstone disease mainly affected the late youth and early middle-aged persons. It was also found that women are at a higher risk than men. Majority of patients had derangement of liver functions as well as derangement of lipid profile. An association between serum bilirubin and cholesterol levels was found in our study. The findings of present study showed that cholesterol is the most common component in gallstone and amount of cholesterol in gallstone was associated with serum bilirubin levels and dyslipidaemia. Obesity, non-vegetarian diet and increased levels of were possible etiological risk factors warranting lifestyle and dietary modification as a possible preventive measure.</p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: 200%;"><span style="margin: 0px; line-height: 200%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> Rohit Kapoor Raj Kumar Sharma Osman Musa Hingora Akhilesh Kumar Roy Faraz Ahmed Neeraj Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 Overiectomized Model (Shyam Operated) and Femur Evaluation Parameters for the screening of antiosteoporotic Activity <p>The objective of the present study was to perform the ovariectomy in experimental animals and to study femur evaluation parameter for antiosteoporotic activity. Ovariectomy or Sham operations were performed on Wistar albino rats under the ketamine anesthesia. Ovariectomy means removal of ovaries by surgical procedure. Changes in femur physical parameters like Femur wet weight, Femur length, Femur volume and Femur density due to the removal of the ovary in the rat were studied. Ovariectomy was successfully performed in albino wistar rats and femur evaluation parameters were studied. Ovariectomized model is a promising model to induce the osteoporosis condition similar to postmenopausal women and major bones are getting affected due to lack of estrogen.</p> S M Gunjegaonkar S S Shukla A Shirsath S B Wankhede ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 Significance of medicinal plants against typhoid fever: Possible mechanism, effectiveness and outcomes <p>Typhoid fever one of the most severe bacterial disease have affected millions over the decades. It usually being treated with the administration of antibiotics as well as homeopathic medicines and traditional medicines which includes several medicinal plants. Such use of antibiotics against <em>Salmonella typhi</em> has increased the danger of increasing resistance of it against used antibiotics and thus decreasing the chances of its treatment in future. Homeopathic medicines prepared from several medicinal plants have been reported to be very effective against the <em>S. typhi</em> and its variants, thus have increased the chances of its treatment. Pharmacological profile of such medicinal plants extracts is still widely unknown and need further research. Moreover, all so far used medicinal plants, required pharmacological screening for their effectiveness against the effects of <em>S. typhi</em>.</p> Anand Singh Pavan Kumar Rashmi Srivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 Melatonin: An integrative approach to regulate immune homeostasis against oxidative stress <p>Several factors such as environment, pathogens, lifestyle, stress, radiation etc. are involved in increasing oxidative overload by affecting the antioxidant status or free oxygen radical generation. The elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) causes redox imbalance that exacerbates free radicals generation causing oxidative stress which impairs the antioxidant defense pathways resulting into molecular damage to vital structures and functions thereby causing cell death. Oxidative stress increases susceptibility to illness and disease because as a part of intrinsic defense mechanism, brain send signals to the endocrine system. Oxidative stress is also implicated in various life-threatening diseases wherein, free radicals far outnumber the naturally occurring antioxidants.&nbsp; To maintain the redox balance, a continual supply of antioxidants is necessary in order to obtain the maximum benefits. In recent years, the pharmaceutical market has been flooded with various antioxidant supplements that claim to reduce oxidative overload and increase longevity, however they have a few drawbacks such as auto-oxidation and impermeability inside the cell. Hence, a strong integrative approach is required to counteract oxidative stress without affecting normal physiology. Melatonin, a lipophilic molecule synthesized by the pineal gland is a potent intrinsic non-enzymatic antioxidant as well as an immunomodulator. Melatonin is a part of intrinsic system that has the ability to regulate antioxidative, immunologic and other physiological processes simultaneously. Therefore, in this review we have highlighted properties of melatonin and introduced it as a strong candidate against redox imbalance induced clinical pathologies thereby increasing longevity and survival.</p> Shraddha Rastogi Chandana Haldar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 Retrospect on Endothelin-1 gene (EDN1) polymorphisms in essential hypertension <p>Hypertension is a major health challenge to both public and clinical fields worldwide. The etiology of essential hypertension is complex, involving the interactions between several genes and environmental factors. In recent years, researchers have evaluated different single gene polymorphisms to determine whether genetic variations affect hypertensive risk or not. Among the several genetic variations, endothelin-1 gene polymorphism become a popular interest to determine hypertensive risk in different study groups. Despite normal endothelin-1 level in essential hypertension, <em>EDN1</em> gene is overexpressed in hypertensive patients. In this review, an evaluation of scientific data that how <em>EDN1</em> gene polymorphisms are implicated in hypertension has been carried out. Certain gene variants of endothelin-1 gene carry hypertensive risk in some studies, yet various effects and other interacting factors have been identified.&nbsp; Adenine insertion/deletion polymorphism at 5’ untranslated region of <em>EDN1</em> gene affects variations of blood pressure as the insertion variant overexpresses <em>EDN1</em> by mRNA stability and is associated with high diastolic pressure. Yet, metabolic dysfunctions are absent in hypertensive patients carrying the insertion genotype. The Guanine-to-Thymine transversion at position 198 of <em>EDN1</em> gene is another variation affecting hypertensive risk. The T allele is the predictor for high blood pressures – both systolic and diastolic. However, some factors such as obesity, fitness level and physical training interacts with the association. The evidence of other single nucleotide polymorphisms of <em>EDN1</em> associating with hypertension is poor.</p> Win Min Oo Myat Mon Khine ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2