Image segmentation and association analysis of Endothelin-1 and CD-31 expression in tobacco smokers' placenta using automated Nearest Neighbour and Genetic Algorithm

  • Banajit Bastia Environmental Toxicology & Electron Microscope Lab, ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi-110029, India
  • Kapil Kumar Department of Zoology, Meerut College, Meerut (C.C.S University), U.P- 250001, India
  • Shashi Nandar Kumar Environmental Toxicology & Electron Microscope Lab, ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi-110029, India
  • Pradeep Kumar Naik Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Sambalpur University, Burla, Sambalpur, Odisha. India
  • Nihar Ranjan Behera Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, M.K.C.G Medical College & Hospital, Berhampur, Odisha-760004, India
  • Arun Kumar Jain Environmental Toxicology & Electron Microscope Lab, ICMR-National Institute of Pathology, Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi-110029, India


Expression of the protein markers, Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and CD-31 in human placenta is reported to be associated with the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke. We have established through immunohistochemical evaluation that the expression level of ET-1 protein is consistently very high among the women who directly smoke tobacco (active smokers) compared to the other group of women who inhale environmental tobacco smoke or ETS (passive smokers) and non-smokers. To determine the relative expression of both the proteins in the immunohistochemistry images from both the group of women, we have utilized combination of genetic algorithm and nearest neighbor (GA-NN model). Based on the extracted features from the image the GA-NN model efficiently detected the differential expression of the marker proteins and categorized them as active smokers or passive smokers. The computational model was found to be very robust (predictive accuracy was 90.76 ± 2.50 %, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.7125, Qpred = 82.85 ± 4.246%, sensitivity = 89.24 ± 2.45% and specificity = 83.43 ± 2.38%. The rate/intensity of expression for ET-1 and CD-31 was more for active smokers as compared to passive smokers. From these results, it could be concluded that computer aided diagnosis based on the immunohistochemical (IHC) images of tissue biopsies from different diseases can support the clinicians in framing their opinion about the comprehensive diagnosis of patient's ailment and its cure, especially in country like ours which lacks experienced histopathologists.


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How to Cite
Bastia, B., Kumar, K., Kumar, S., Naik, P., Behera, N., & Jain, A. (2018, March 31). Image segmentation and association analysis of Endothelin-1 and CD-31 expression in tobacco smokers’ placenta using automated Nearest Neighbour and Genetic Algorithm. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine, 4(1). Retrieved from
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