Image segmentation and association analysis of Endothelin-1 and CD-31 expression in tobacco smokers' placenta using automated Nearest Neighbour and Genetic Algorithm
Expression of the protein markers, Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and CD-31 in human placenta is reported to be associated with the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke. We have established through immunohistochemical evaluation that the expression level of ET-1 protein is consistently very high among the women who directly smoke tobacco (active smokers) compared to the other group of women who inhale environmental tobacco smoke or ETS (passive smokers) and non-smokers. To determine the relative expression of both the proteins in the immunohistochemistry images from both the group of women, we have utilized combination of genetic algorithm and nearest neighbor (GA-NN model). Based on the extracted features from the image the GA-NN model efficiently detected the differential expression of the marker proteins and categorized them as active smokers or passive smokers. The computational model was found to be very robust (predictive accuracy was 90.76 ± 2.50 %, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 0.7125, Qpred = 82.85 ± 4.246%, sensitivity = 89.24 ± 2.45% and specificity = 83.43 ± 2.38%. The rate/intensity of expression for ET-1 and CD-31 was more for active smokers as compared to passive smokers. From these results, it could be concluded that computer aided diagnosis based on the immunohistochemical (IHC) images of tissue biopsies from different diseases can support the clinicians in framing their opinion about the comprehensive diagnosis of patient's ailment and its cure, especially in country like ours which lacks experienced histopathologists.
Bastia B, Kumar K, Kumar SN, Behera NR, Jain AK (2017) Expression of Endothelin-1 in Human Placenta of Active Smokers: An Immunohistochemical Study. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences (IJRSB) 5(12):34-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2349-0365.0512005
Cha SH, Tappert CC (2009) A Genetic Algorithm for Constructing Compact Binary Decision Trees. J Pattn Recog Res 4(1):1–13
Hsu SM, Raine L, Fanger H (1981) Use of avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) in immunoperoxidase techniques: a comparison between ABC and unlabeled antibody (PAP) procedures. J Histochem Cytochem 29(4):577-580
Huang F, Zheng W, Liang Q, Yin T (2013) Diagnosis and treatment of placental site trophoblastic tumor. International J Clin and Experimental Pathology 6(7):1448-1451
Kozuka M, Ito T, Hirose S, Takahashi K, Hagiwara H (1989) Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 159:317-323
Langston C, Kaplan C, Macpherson T, Manci E, Peevy K, Clark B, Murtagh C, Cox S, Glenn G (1997) Practice guideline for examination of the placenta: developed by the Placental Pathology Practice Guideline Development Task Force of the College ofAmerican Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121(5):449-476
Lösch A, Kainz C (1996) Immunohisto- chemistry in the diagnosis of the gestational trophoblastic disease. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 75:753–756. doi: 10.3109/00016349609065741
Luiza JW, Taylor SE, Gao FF, Edwards RP (2014) Placental site trophoblastic tumor: Immunohistochemistry algorithm key to diagnosis and review of literature. Gynecologic Oncology Case Reports 7:13-15. doi:10.1016/j.gynor.2013.11.001
Mastrogiannis DS, O’Brien WF, Krammer J, Benoit R (1991) Potential role of endothelin-1 in normal and hypertensive Pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:1711-1716
Naik PK, Mishra VS, Gupta M, Jaiswal K (2007) Prediction of enzymes and non-enzymes from protein sequences based on sequence derived features and PSSM matrix using artificial neural network. Bioinformation 2(3):107-112
Nova A, Sibai BM, Barton JR, Mercer BM, Mitchell MD (1991) Maternal plasma levels of endothelin is increased in pre-eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 165:724-727
Nuovo G (2006) The utility of immuno-histochemistry and in situ hybridization in placental pathology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130(7):979-983
Sabra S, Gratacos E, Gomez Roig MD (2017) Smoking-Induced Changes in the Maternal Immune, Endocrine, and Metabolic Pathways and Their Impact on Fetal Growth: A Topical Review. Fetal Diagn Ther 41(4):241-250
Schiff E, Ben-Baruch G, Peleg E, Rosenthal T, Alcalay M, Devir M, Mashiach S (1992) Immuno-reactive circulating endothelin-1 in normal and hypertensive pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 166:624-628
Schmitt LM (2001) Theory of Genetic Algorithms. Theor Compu Sci 259:1–61
Schmitt LM (2004) Theory of Genetic Algorithms II: models for genetic operators over the string-tensor representation of populations and convergence to global optima for arbitrary fitness function under scaling. Theor Compu Sci 310:181–231
Schmitt LM, Nehaniv CL, Fujii RH (1998) Linear analysis of genetic algorithms. Theor Compu Sci 208:111–148
Whitley D (1994) A genetic algorithm tutorial. Stats and Compu 4(2):65–85
Wolff K, Nisell H, Modin A, Lundberg JM, Lunell NO, Lindblom B (1993) Contractile effect of endothelin 1 and endothelin 3 on myometrium and small intra-myometrial arteries of pregnant women at term. Gynecol Obstet Invest 36:166-171
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).