Impact of smokeless tobacco use on pregnant Indian women

  • Hemlata Shedge Department of Anthropology, Savitribai Phule Pune University (SPPU), Pune, Maharashtra, India- 411005
  • Shaunak Kulkarni Department of Anthropology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, Maharashtra 411005, India


Smokeless tobacco is a product consisting of tobacco or a tobacco blend that is used other than smoking. In Maharashtra the pattern of tobacco use is slightly different where smokeless tobacco is preferred over smoking. In the present study is focused to understand the impact of smokeless tobacco use on pregnant Indian women and assess adverse effects on feto-maternal outcome. The study is a hospital based case control study with sample size 591. Women who reside in Chawl type of resident, lower education level, homemaker/housewife, lesser family income and Marathi mother tongue are significantly associated with tobacco use and have prevalence of anaemia 77.32% among the pregnant women. The women who are tobacco users have 2 times higher risk of having anaemia as compared to tobacco non user women, (OR: 2.193, CI: 1.240 – 3.877), (p = 0.007). Women who delivered in the government hospital have 3 times higher chance of having anaemia as compared to the private hospital (OR: 3.268, CI: 1.889 – 5.652), (p = 0.000**). The illiterate have 9 times higher risk of having anaemia (OR: 9.545, CI: 2.191 – 41.592), (p = 0.003*) compared to post graduate.


Asma SJ, Mackay SY, Song L, Zhao J, Morton KM, Palipudi D, Bettcher et al (2015) The GATS Atlas: Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Atlanta, GA: CDC Foundation

Begum Shahina Jean J, Schensul Saritha Nair, and Balaiah Donta (2015) Initiating Smokeless Tobacco Use across Reproductive Stages. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 16 (17):7547–7554.

Gupta PC (2004) Smokeless Tobacco Use, Birth Weight, and Gestational Age: Population Based, Prospective Cohort Study of 1217 Women in Mumbai, India. BMJ 328 (7455):1538–0.

Gupta Prakash C, and Cecily S Ray (2003) Smokeless Tobacco and Health in India and South Asia. Respirology 8 (4):419–431

GATS (2016)

Hailu Jufar Alemayehu (2013) Prevalence of Anaemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases 02 (01).

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (2004) IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. IARC, Lyon 89:1–1452

Kulkarni Priya Y, Devidas T Khedkar, Jitendra S Bhawalkar, and Vandana A Kakrani (2015) Perceptions and Practices of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the Form of Mishri among Rural Women above 10 Years of Age in Pune, Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health 5 (2):173.

Majumdar Ratna, Swati S Raje, and Ashlesha Dandekar (2013) Socio Demographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Use in Rural Maharashtra. Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University 6 (2):161.

Mathers Colin D and Dejan Loncar (2006) Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Medicine 3 (11):e442

Mutti S, Reid JL, Gupta PC, Pednekar MS, Dhumal G, Nargis N, Hussain AG, Hammond D (2016) Patterns of use and perceptions of harm of smokeless tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Indian J Community Med 41:280-287

SEARO, WHO (2004) Report on Oral Tobacco Use and Its Implications in South-East Asia. Retrieved

WHO (2013) Smokeless Tobacco in South-East Asia in Relation to the WHO FCTC
How to Cite
Shedge, H. and Kulkarni, S. 2017. Impact of smokeless tobacco use on pregnant Indian women. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine. 3, 4 (Dec. 2017), 26-34.
Research Articles