Assessment of the putative effects of Oral Contraceptives on Gingival tissues
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptives on gingival tissues, correlating the clinical parameters observed with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Twenty-five women oral contraceptives users and non- oral contraceptive users were included in the test & control group respectively. Clinical parameters investigated included gingival index (GI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index (PI). Contraceptive users (n=25) and non-users (n=25) had similar oral hygiene levels; yet the contraceptive users had a signiﬁcantly higher level of gingival inﬂammation, com- pared to the non-users (p, 0.001; one-way ANOVA). Gingival Index and Gingival Bleeding Index scores were higher in the test group when compared to the controls suggesting an exaggerated expression of gingival inflammation. The negative correlation between Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index supports that above findings are independent of the plaque accumulation.
Ainamo J, Bay I (1975) Problems and proposals for recording gingivitis and plaque. Int Dent J 25: 229-35
Armitage GC (1999) Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol 4:1-6
Brusca MI, Rosa A, Albaina O, Moragues MD, Verdugo F, Pontón J (2010) The impact of oral contraceptives on women's periodontal health and subgingival occurrence of aggressive periodontopathogens and Candida species. J Periodontol 81:1010-8
Domingues RS, Ferraz BFR, Greghi SLA, de Rezende MLR, Passanezi E, Sant’ana ACP (2012). Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition. J Appl Oral Sci 20(2):253-9
Haerian-Ardakani A, Moeintaghavi A, Talebi-Ardakani MR, Sohrabi K, Bahmani S, Dargahi M (2010) The association between current low-dose oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: a matched-case-control study. J Contemp Dent Pract 11:33- 40
Jensen J, Liljemark W, Bloomquist C (1981) The effect of female sex hormones on subgingival plaque. Journal of Periodontology 52:599–602
Jo¨nsson D, Andersson G, Ekblad E, Liang M, Bratthall G, Nilsson BO (2004) Immunocytochemical demonstration of estrogen receptor β in human periodontal ligament cells. Arch Oral Biol 49:85–88
Kalkwarf KL (1978) Effect of oral contraceptive therapy on gingival inflammation in humans. J Periodontol 49:560-3
Kornman KS and Loesche WJ (1980) The subgingival microbial ﬂora during pregnancy. J Periodontal Res 15: 111–122
Kornman KS, Loesche WJ (1982) Effects of estradiol and progesterone on Bacteroides melaninogenicus and Bacteroides gingivalis. Infect Immun 35: 256-63
Lapp CA, Lapp DF (2005) Analysis of interleukin-activated human gingival fibroblasts: modulation of chemokine responses by female hormones. J Periodontol 76:803-12
Lo¨e H, Silness J (1963) Periodontal disease in pregnancy: Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia 21: 533– 551
Machtei EE, Mahler D, Sanduri H, Peled M (2004) The effect of menstrual cycle on periodontal health. J Periodontol 75: 408-12
Mariotti A (1994) Sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 5:27-53
Miyagi M, Morishita M, Iwamoto Y (1993) Effects of sex hormones on production of prostaglandin E2 by human peripheral monocytes. J Periodontology 64: 1075–78
Mullally BH, Coulter WA, Hutchinson JD, Clarke HA (2007) Current oral contraceptive status and periodontitis in young adults. J Periodontol 78:1031-6
Nakagawa S, Fuji H, Machida Y, Okuda KA (1994) A longitudinal study from pre puberty to puberty of gingivitis. Correlation between the occurrence of Prevotella intermedia and sex hormones. J Clin Periodontol 21:658-65
Preshaw PM, Knutsen MA, Mariotti A (2001) Experimental gingivitis in women using oral contraceptives. J Dent Res 80:2011-5
Raber-Durlacher JE, Leene W, Palmer- bouva CCR, Raber J, Abraham-In- pijn L (1983) Experimental gingivitis during pregnancy and post-partum: immuno-histochemical aspects. J Periodontology 64: 211–218
Silness J, Lo¨e H (1964) Periodontal disease in pregnancy (II). Correlation between oral hygiene and periodontal condition. Acta Odontologica Scandinavia 1964; 22: 121–135
Sooriyamoorthy M, Gower DB (1989) Hormonal influences on gingival tissue: relationship to periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol 16:201-8
Stamm JW (1986) Epidemiology of gingivitis. J Clinical Periodontology 13: 360–370
Taichman LS, Eklund SA (2005) Oral contraceptives and periodontal diseases: rethinking the association based upon analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. J Periodontol 76:1374-85
Tilakaratne A, Soory M, Ranasinghe AW, Corea SMX, ekanayake SL, Silva M (2000) effects of hormonal contraceptives on the periodontium, in a population of rural Sri-Lankan women. J Clin Periodontol 27:753-7
Vittek J, Hernandez MR, Wenk EJ, Rappaport SC, Southren AL (1982) Speciﬁc estrogen receptors in human gingiva. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 608–612
Zachariasen RD (1993) The effect of elevated ovarian hormones on periodontal health: oral contraceptives and pregnancy. Women and Health 20: 21–30
Copyright (c) 2016 Mohan et al.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).