Effect of temperature on nitrifying microbes, emphasizing on ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria
Nitrification is a biochemical process that involves the conversion of toxic ammonia to the lesser toxic form i.e., nitrate, mainly studied in wastewater treatment plants, soil samples and different aquaculture units. The first step of nitrification is carried out by ammonia oxidizers, ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The metabolic activities of these organisms are affected by the changes of temperature. The effect of temperature in the growth of ammonia oxidizing microbes has been discussed widely. Interestingly, temperature changes also induce the alteration of the expression of ammonia monoxygenase (amoA) gene. Different species of these microbes in different habitats have been studied which emphasizes that the degree of effect in different species is different leading to the dynamicity of community structure in nitrifying microbial population. The optimum temperature of these microbes is depended upon the habitats, reflecting the atmospheric temperature, attaining a lower optimum temperature in colder region compared to the population of warmer region. Effects of temperature has been widely reported in combination with other factors such as dissolved oxygen, substrate concentration etc. The reports on the effect of temperature are also extended towards nitrite oxidizing bacteria and the impact on the establishment of ammonia oxidizing microbes.
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