Potential of Helianthus annuus for phytoremediation of multiple pollutants in the environment: A Review
The development of various industrial contaminants especially heavy metals poses a severe environmental threat. Heavy metals are continuously polluting the ecosystem and these are harmful to the human being and other biota of the ecosystem. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective method for remediation of the polluted soil and water. The review represents the status of this technique with special emphasis on phytaccumulation of the multi-pollutants like heavy metals, hydrocarbons and other pollutants using Helianthus annuus, a hyperaccumulator plant. Various mechanisms are known for absorption and transportation of heavy metals inside the plant body through metal binding proteins viz. metallotheiones, phytochelatins and antioxidant enzymes which enhance the accumulation of metal. Microbial association with plants also plays a significant role in the enhancement of remediation of these pollutants and employ of genetic engineering also enhances the phytoaccumulation of heavy metals.
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