Correlation of serum biochemical characteristics with its gallstone compositions
Gallstone disease is usually an asymptomatic disease affecting millions of people all over the world. It is also considered as the most important risk factor for developing gallbladder cancer. Gallstone is found in populations in most parts of the world, while its existence is prevalent in certain regions like India, Chile, Japan and USA. Analysis of gallstone and biochemical characteristics of patient may provide the important insights to pathophysiology of gallstone disease. For this purpose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied for the compositional analysis of gallstone. Later, the observational study was carried out by comparing the composition of gallstone along with specific biochemical characters of gallstone patients. On the basis of present study, it was revealed that the gallstone disease mainly affected the late youth and early middle-aged persons. It was also found that women are at a higher risk than men. Majority of patients had derangement of liver functions as well as derangement of lipid profile. An association between serum bilirubin and cholesterol levels was found in our study. The findings of present study showed that cholesterol is the most common component in gallstone and amount of cholesterol in gallstone was associated with serum bilirubin levels and dyslipidaemia. Obesity, non-vegetarian diet and increased levels of were possible etiological risk factors warranting lifestyle and dietary modification as a possible preventive measure.
Angwafo FF III, Takongmo S, Griffith D (2004) Determination of chemical composition of gallbladder stones; Basis for treatment strategies in patients from Yaounde, Cameroon. World J Gastroenterol 10(2):303-305
Aulakh R, Mohan H, Attri AK, Kaur J, Punia RP (2007) A comparative study of serum lipid profile and gallstone disease. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 50(2): 308-312
Bak M, Thomsen JK, Jakobsen HJ, Petersen SE, Petersen TE, Nielsen NC (2000) Solid-state 13 C and 31 P NMR analysis of urinary stones. J Urol (3 Pt 1):856-863
Batajoo H, Hazra NK (2013) Analysis of serum lipid profile in cholelithiasis patients. J Nepal Health Res Counc 11(23):53-55
Bateson MC (1999) Gallbladder disease. British Medical Journal. 318(7200):1745-1748
Chandran P, Kuchhal NK, Garg P, Pundir CS, (2007) An extended chemical analysis of gallstone. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 22 (2):145-150
Das B, Malik AK, Rehman A, Samanta S, Ahsan M, (2014) Quantitative Analysis of Chemical Composition of Gallstones in North Indian Population (Rohilkhand Region, Uttar Pradesh). NJIRM. 5(4):4-12
Hussain SM, Al-Jashamy KA (2013) Determination of Chemical Composition of Gallbladder Stones and their Association with Induction of Cholangiocarcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 14 (11):6257-6260
Jaraari AM, Jagannadharao P, Patil TN, Hai A (2010) Quantitative analysis of gallstones in Libyan patients. Libyan J Med 5:4627
Jarrar BM, Al-Rowaili M (2011) Chemical Composition of Gallstones from Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia. Malays J Med Sci 18(2):47–52
Jayalakshmi K, Sonkar K, Behari A, Kapoor VK, Sinha N (2009) Solid state (13)C NMR analysis of human gallstones from cancer and benign gall bladder diseases. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 36(1):60-65
Jensen KH, Jorgensen T (1991) Incidence of gallstones in Danish population. Gastroenterology 100(3):790–794
Mohan H, Punia RPS, Dhawan SB, Ahal S, Sekhon MS (2005) Morphological spectrum of gallstone disease in 1100 cholecystectomies in North India. Indian J Surg 67:140-142
Oak JH, Paik CN, Chung WC, Lee KM, Yang JM (2012) Risk Factors for Recurrence of Symptomatic Common Bile Duct Stones after Cholecystectomy. Gastroenterology Research and Practice Article ID 417821:1-6
Pereira SP, Hussaini SH, Kennedy C, Dowling RH (1995) Gallbladder stone recurrence after medical treatment. Do gallstones recur true to type? Dig Dis Sci. 40(12):2568-2575
Pitchumoni CS (2010) Increasing prevalence of Gallstones, Diagnostic and therapeutic Options. APPI Medicine Update 7(5B):486-490
Pixley F, Mann J (1988) Dietary factors in the etiology of gall stones: a case control study. Gut 29: 1511-1515
Pixley F, Wilson D, McPherson K, Mann J (1985). Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women. British Medical Journal 291(6487):11-12
Pradhan SB, Joshi MR. & Vaidya A (2009) Prevalence of different types of gallstone in the patients with cholelithiasis at Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J 7(27):268-71
Schirmer BD, Winters KL, Edlich RF (2005) Cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. J Long Term Eff Med Implants 15:329–338
Shaffer EA (2005) Epidemiology and risk factors for gallstone disease: has the paradigm changed in the 21st century? Curr Gastroenterol Rep 7:132–140
Shuaib A, Kokaj J, Makdisi Y, Pichler G, Husain A, Asfar S (2017) Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy as a Guidance Tool for Laser Lithotripsy of Gallbladder Stones. Photomed Laser Surg 35(9):498-504
Srivastava M, Sharma A, Kapoor V. K., Nagana Gowda G. A (2008) Stones from cancerous and benign gallbladders are different: A proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Hepatology Research 38(10): 997-1005
Steen G, Blijenberg BG (1991) Chemical Analysis of Gallstones. Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem 29:801-804
Sutor DJ, Wooley SE (1969) X-ray diffraction studies of the composition of gallstones from English and Australian patients. Gut 10(8):681-683
Suzuki N, Nakamura Y, Sato T (1975) Infrared absorption spectroscopy of pure pigment gallstones. Tohoku J Exp Med 116(3):259-265
Tandon RK (2000) Prevalence and type of biliary stones in India. World J Gastroenterol 6:4-5
Tazuma S (2006) Gallstone disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and classification of biliary stones (common bile duct and intrahepatic). Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20:1075–1083
Ti TK, Yuen R (1985) Chemical composition of biliary calculi in relation to the pattern of biliary disease in Singapore. British J Surg 72(7):556-558
Tîrziu S, Bel S, Bondor CI, Acalovschi M (2008) Risk factors for gallstone disease in patients with gallstones having gallstone heredity, A case-control study. Rom J Intern Med 46(3):223-228
Unisa S, Jagannath P, Dhir V, Khandelwal K, Sarangi L, Roy TK (2011) Population-based study to estimate prevalence and determine risk factors of gallbladder diseases in the rural Gangetic basin of North India. HPB 13(2):117–125
Whiting MJ, Jarvinen V, McK Watts J (1985) Chemical composition of gallstones resistant to dissolution therapy with chenodeoxycholic acid. Gut 21:1077-1081
Yoo EH, Oh HJ, Lee SY (2008) Gallstone analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Clin Chem Lab Med 46(3):376-81
Copyright (c) 2018 Kapoor et al.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).